Page dedicated to CO2
Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound consisting of one part carbon and two parts oxygen represented by the chemical formula CO2. For a number of reasons, carbon dioxide is one of the most important gases on Earth. Plants use carbon dioxide to produce carbohydrates (sugars and starches) in the process known as photosynthesis (in photosynthesis, plants make use of light to break down chemical compounds and produce energy). Since humans and all other animals depend on plants for their food, photosynthesis is necessary for the survival of all life on Earth. In 1756 the Scottish chemist Joseph Black (1728–1799) discovered that carbon dioxide (which was then called "fixed air") was present in the atmosphere and that it could form other compounds. He also identified carbon dioxide in breath exhaled by human beings. That knowledge and the understanding of CO2’s physico-chemical properties allowed chemists back in the early 1800s to accurately determine its concentration in air (the atmosphere).
There are two major sinks and, at the same time, emitters of CO2 on our planet: the water that covers 70% of the Earth's surface, and the biomass that covers the rest. More than 97% of its emission/absorption is due to natural processes that are driven by two very different mechanisms. The dynamics of CO2 exchange between air and water is driven by temperature and is well understood, with detailed solubility tables available on specialized web sites and in chemists’ reference books that can be found in every laboratory. The dynamics of CO2 exchange between air and the biomass surface is also a well understood process, called photosynthesis that is driven by CO2, H2O and sunlight. No gas molecule can drive the temperature of an open system since there is no known mechanism where a gas molecule can act as some sort of physical barrier, or the infamous 'blanket' invented by the anti-scientific theory, that appeared to come from nowhere in the 1980's, called the 'greenhouse theory' or GHT. Coincidentally, the same scientists that invented global warming and GHT in the 1980s were also the advocates of global cooling in 1970s! Describing the CO2 molecule as some sort of controller of air temperature has nothing to do with science and everything to do with desperate attempts, for environmental and political reasons, to connect CO2 with air temperatures. The GHT is a very unique theory in the history of modern science: firstly, for the GHT to work, only the CO2 generated by burning fossil fuels can be used, i.e. the 97% of all CO2 generated naturally is totally ignored; secondly, for the GHT to work, the physico-chemical properties of CO2 must be different between day-time and night-time - 1 molecule of CO2 (0.004%) that is surrounded by 2500 (99.96%) molecules of N2 and O2 is doing all the work during the night-time while 2500 molecules of N2+O2 are doing nothing; and finally the theory assumes that N2 and O2 molecules have no heat capacity, while in reality it is the CO2 molecule that has the lowest heat capacity of the three molecules, i.e. of the three gases CO2 has the lowest ability to absorb heat energy from the sun. The worst part of that fraudulent pseudo-science is to ignore the fact that the physico-chemical properties of the molecules in their pure state and the properties of the mixture that we call 'air', air is not a molecule, are two completely different issues. In short, every single aspect of so called GHT is total scientific nonsense and the only way that the theory could be published was to use journals well outside the front-line sciences like chemistry, biochemistry or plant biology. See the report that falsifies the GHT. Air is a mixture of gas molecules which are not connected and every property of the mixture is directly proportional to the contribution of each molecule to that mixture, i.e. N2 contributes 78%, O2 21% and CO2 0.039% towards any given property.
All the reports on this web page are about what we do know about CO2, how the solubility of CO2 in water affects its concentration in the air above the oceans, how the mechanism of photosynthesis affects its concentration above the biomass, how it travels up-and-down and along, how we live in a harmony with CO2 at concentrations of 2000-3000 PPM on a daily basis, how understanding of the respiratory mechanism tells us that CO2 becomes toxic to human beings only when it reaches 60,000 PPM and, finally, why attempts to reduce the CO2 levels to 200 PPM will lead to certain death of the Earth's biomass which forms the start of the global food chain for all land-living species.